Describe the pathways of oxygen in the breathing system?


Acid reflux:   a painful condition in which acids regurgitate from the stomach into the esophagus, also referred to as gerd (gastroesophageal reflux disease)

anus:   the opening of the rectum through which solid waste leaves the body

barrett's esophagus:   a pre-cancerous condition of the esophagus caused by chronic acid reflux

benign:   non-cancerous

bile ducts:   a network that transports digestive fluids from the liver and gallbladder to the intestine

biopsy:   the cellular study of tissue removed from a living body

bronchoscope:   a flexible instrument used to examine airways

cholangioscopy:   examination of the bile ducts via endoscopy

colon:   the main part of the large intestine

digestive system:   comprised of the esophagus, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus

duodenum:   the first part of the small intestine

endoscope:   a long, narrow, flexible tube with a small light and camera at one end

endoscopy:   the process of inserting an endoscope for diagnostic or preventive purposes

enteroscope:   a tool used to examine the inside of the intestines

esophagus:   the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach

gallbladder:   the organ that works in conjunction with the liver and pancreas to assist with food digestion

gallstones:   a small mass in the gallbladder that blocks the bile ducts

gastrointestinal:   relating to the stomach and intestines

liver:   the organ responsible for blood filtration, detoxification and metabolism

malignant:   cancerous

pancreas:   a gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine

polyps:   small, benign growths

proctoscope:   a tool used to examine the anus and rectum

pulmonary:   relating to the lungs

rectum:   the area where the large intestine meets the anus

sigmoid colon:   the part of the large intestine close to the rectum and anus

sigmoidoscope:   an endoscope used to examine the last one-third of the colon

small intestine/bowel:   the longest part of the digestive system

stent:   a device that keeps tubes or vessels open

stomach:   located in the upper abdomen, where the initial stages of digestion occur

strictures:   the irregular narrowing of a passage or duct

trachea:   also known as the 'windpipe,' a major connector that carries air to the lungs

ulcers:   a painful, open sore on the skin or a mucous membrane

ultrasound:   a procedure in which images are generated by sound vibrations

upper gi tract:   the area of the digestive system that includes the esophagus, stomach and duodenum

varices:   the irregular dilation or swelling of a vein or veins

a transform boundary is where the plates are passing each other like if you press your palms together but try sliding them at the same time. if you try that you will notice that the motion occurs in jumps rather than smoothly (pressing palms together as they slide). the plates move in jumps as well when the stress builds up past the bonds or friction holding the plates together. that is an earthquake when it happens at the plate boundary. other things can happen geologically as well as you might imagine, for instance normal faulting from pulling and even thrust faulting from compression effects because the plates aren’t completely smooth and sometimes get stuck in places. big rocks can be pulled apart and broken or crushed together and heated from the friction. within the transform fault will often be smaller strike slip faulting and is part of this, too. generally though, earthquakes will be the most common answer.

The air enters your nose and to nassal passages for filtering and warming of the air. And it travels down into your windpipe, or trachea then to the bronchia tubes pass through the lungs which divided into smaller air passages called bronchioles. The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. :)

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