Monsoons produce the very wet summers and dry winters that occur on nearly all of the tropical continents. A monsoon is not a storm like a hurricane or a summer thunderstorm, but a much larger pattern of winds and rain that spans a large geographic area – a continent or even the entire globe.
Weather and climate are very different in the tropics and mid-latitudes, and it is not just a matter of the tropics being warmer. In Europe, North America, and other mid-latitude regions, temperatures undergo large changes over the seasonal cycle; weather events in these regions last a few days as high- and low-pressure systems drift slowly eastward, rearranging the locations of warmer and colder air masses as they go. This might make it cool and rainy one day and warm and sunny the next. In contrast, tropical temperatures don’t change much throughout the year. The seasonal cycle over tropical continents is marked by an oscillation between dry and wet periods brought about by monsoons. Weather events in the tropics – such as typhoons, thunderstorms, and other rainstorms – are actually embedded within the much larger monsoons. Billions of people live in the monsoon climates of South Asia, Africa, and the tropical Americas, and every spring they wait for monsoon rains that will end the winter dryness even though they might also cause disastrous floods. There is often too little water or too much.
Equatorial convergence zone, belt of converging trade winds and rising air that encircles the Earth near the Equator. The rising air produces high cloudiness, frequent thunderstorms, and heavy rainfall; the doldrums, oceanic regions of calm surface air, occur within the zone
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Monsoons are the only known winds that change direction with season
Sea breezes occur during hot, summer days because of the unequal heating rates of land and water. During the day, the land surface heats up faster than the water surface. ... As the warm air over the land is rising, the cooler air over the ocean is flowing over the land surface to replace the rising warm air.
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