The atmosphere can be divided into layers based on its temperature, as shown in the figure below. These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere. A further region, beginning about 500 km above the Earth's surface, is called the exosphere.
The red line on the figure below shows how temperature varies with height (the temperature scale is given along the bottom of the diagram). The scale on the right shows the pressure. For example, at a height of 50 km, the pressure is only about one thousandth of the pressure at the ground.The Troposphere
This is the lowest part of the atmosphere - the part we live in. It contains most of our weather - clouds, rain, snow. In this part of the atmosphere the temperature gets colder as the distance above the earth increases, by about 6.5°C per kilometre. The actual change of temperature with height varies from day to day, depending on the weather.
The troposphere contains about 75% of all of the air in the atmosphere, and almost all of the water vapour (which forms clouds and rain). The decrease in temperature with height is a result of the decreasing pressure. If a parcel of air moves upwards it expands (because of the lower pressure). When air expands it cools. So air higher up is cooler than air lower down.
The lowest part of the troposphere is called the boundary layer. This is where the air motion is determined by the properties of the Earth's surface. Turbulence is generated as the wind blows over the Earth's surface, and by thermals rising from the land as it is heated by the sun. This turbulence redistributes heat and moisture within the boundary layer, as well as pollutants and other constituents of the atmosphere.
The top of the troposphere is called the tropopause. This is lowest at the poles, where it is about 7 - 10 km above the Earth's surface. It is highest (about 17 - 18 km) near the equator.The Stratosphere
This extends upwards from the tropopause to about 50 km. It contains much of the ozone in the atmosphere. The increase in temperature with height occurs because of absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun by this ozone. Temperatures in the stratosphere are highest over the summer pole, and lowest over the winter pole.
By absorbing dangerous UV radiation, the ozone in the stratosphere protects us from skin cancer and other health damage. However chemicals (called CFCs or freons, and halons) which were once used in refrigerators, spray cans and fire extinguishers have reduced the amount of ozone in the stratosphere, particularly at polar latitudes, leading to the so-called "Antarctic ozone hole".
Now humans have stopped making most of the harmful CFCs we expect the ozone hole will eventually recover over the 21st century, but this is a slow process.The Mesosphere
The region above the stratosphere is called the mesosphere. Here the temperature again decreases with height, reaching a minimum of about -90°C at the "mesopause".The Thermosphere and Ionosphere
The thermosphere lies above the mesopause, and is a region in which temperatures again increase with height. This temperature increase is caused by the absorption of energetic ultraviolet and X-Ray radiation from the sun.
The region of the atmosphere above about 80 km is also caused the "ionosphere", since the energetic solar radiation knocks electrons off molecules and atoms, turning them into "ions" with a positive charge. The temperature of the thermosphere varies between night and day and between the seasons, as do the numbers of ions and electrons which are present. The ionosphere reflects and absorbs radio waves, allowing us to receive shortwave radio broadcasts in New Zealand from other parts of the world.The Exosphere
The region above about 500 km is called the exosphere. It contains mainly oxygen and hydrogen atoms, but there are so few of them that they rarely collide - they follow "ballistic" trajectories under the influence of gravity, and some of them escape right out into space.The Magnetosphere
The earth behaves like a huge magnet. It traps electrons (negative charge) and protons (positive), concentrating them in two bands about 3,000 and 16,000 km above the globe - the Van Allen "radiation" belts. This outer region surrounding the earth, where charged particles spiral along the magnetic field lines, is called the magnetosphere.
Till temperature fall continues within the lowermost layer of our atmosphere, known as the troposphere. Above the troposphere, the stratosphere exists and in this region the temperature increases with an increase in altitude. The mesosphere is the part of the atmosphere that lies above the stratosphere.
Scientists divide Earth's atmosphere into four main layers classified according to changes in temperature. These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.
Scientists divide Earth's atmosphere into four main layers classified according to changes in temperature. These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.Troposphere - is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere that we live in. Stratosphere -contains the ozone layer and from the troposphere to about 50 km above the Earth's Surface Mesosphere - this is the layer above the stratosphere signified by a drop in temperature and protects Earth from being hit by most meteoroids. Thermosphere - the outermost layer of the atmosphere and this layer extends from 80 km above Earth outwards into space.
Additional information:Temperature -the average amount of energy of motion of each molecule of a substance. Ionosphere -the lower layer of the thermosphere. Exosphere -the outer portion of the thermosphere.
To know the functions of the atmosphere, read on this link -
Our atmosphere is divided into 6 layers based on it's temperature. There are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, the exosphere, and the magnetosphere.
Explanation:The troposphere- This is the part where we live in. It contains our weather. The temperature is changing depending on the weather (clouds, rain snow). The troposphere contains 75% of the air in the atmosphere. The stratosphere- This extend upwards from the tropopause to about 50 km. It contains much of the ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the sun's UV. The temperature is increasing because of the absorption of the UV radiation from the sun.The mesosphere- The region above the stratosphere. The temperature again decreases with height, with the minimum of about -90'C at the mesopause.The thermosphere- This lies above the mesopause, and the temperature increase because of the absorption of the energetic ultraviolet and X-ray radiation fromthe sun.The exosphere- This region is above 500km. This contains mainly oxygen, and hydrogens atoms.The magnetosphere- This outer region surrounding the earth, where charged particles spiral along the magnetic field lines.
Aleksander Mratinkovie, and [four others]. (2019), Earth Science: World edition, New York: 3G E-Learning.
The troposphere starts at the Earth's surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the most dense. Almost all weather is in this region.
The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. The ozone layer, which absorbs and scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation, is in this layer.
The mesosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles) high. Meteors burn up in this layer
The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372 miles) high. Aurora and satellites occur in this layer.
The ionosphere is an abundant layer of electrons and ionized atoms and molecules that stretches from about 48 kilometers (30 miles) above the surface to the edge of space at about 965 km (600 mi), overlapping into the mesosphere and thermosphere. This dynamic region grows and shrinks based on solar conditions and divides further into the sub-regions: D, E and F; based on what wavelength of solar radiation is absorbed. The ionosphere is a critical link in the chain of Sun-Earth interactions. This region is what makes radio communications possible.
This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. It extends from the top of the thermosphere up to 10,000 km (6,200 mi).
Earth's atmosphere is separated into five primary layers: the exosphere, the thermosphere, the mesosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. The air disperse in each higher layer until the gases scatter in space.
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The troposphere is heated from the ground, so temperature decreases with altitude. Because warm air rises and cool air sinks, the troposphere is unstable. In the stratosphere, temperature increases with altitude. The stratosphere contains the ozone layer, which protects the planet from the Sun's harmful UV radiation.
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