Two examples from the reading of how living things repond to changes in their environment

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C ( For emergency purposes )

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science, technologies, and the human condition. the center for the humanities' year-long series — science, technologies, and the human condition — explores the ways technologies have transformed how we perceive the body, time, space, and our environment.

explanation:

society applauds the recent advancements of scientific technology

in fields such as medicine, energy, and communication. while

humankind profits in many ways from this technology, a few

voices are heard cautioning society to consider the implications of

these developments. this paper discusses the gulf which appears

to exist between scientific technology and the human condition.

reasons for this gulf are: i ) the failure to develop a philosophy

of science in which human values, and aspirations are viewed

within the context of scientific technology, 2) the reductionist

approach to science in which the parts are emphasized at the

expense of the whole; and, 3) the failure to conceptualize

behavior in such a way that the situational or contextual

variables of technology are understood. the paper concludes by

proposing a social ecological model of human behavior which

allows for the integration of technology with the human condition.

i ntroduct ion

society applauds the advancement scientific technology has made in

recent years in various fields, such as medicine, energy, and

communication. while humankind profits in many ways from this

technology, a few voices are heard cautioning society to consider the

implications of these developments.

the objective of this paper is not a crusade for clean air, a lament for

the return to the "good old days," or a call to halt the advancement of

scientific technology. rather, the purpose is to discuss the interface of

scientific technology and the human condition. most important is that e

gulf currently exists between these two factors. several factors are

responsible for this gulf: 1) the failure to develop a philosophy o

science in which the human condition, values, goals, and aspirations ar

viewed within the context of scientific technology; 2) the reductionis

approach to science in which the parts are emphasized at the expense of

the gestalt or whole; and, 3) the failure to conceptualize behavior in such

a way that the situational or contextual variables of technology are

understood. the paper will conclude by proposing a social ecological

model of human behavior, which allows for the integration of technology

and the human condition at both the mirco-level of individual

psycho-social functioning and at the macro-level of social institution.

rhe need for a philosophy of science

rene dubos (1965), in the essay "science and man's nature"

published in da lus, reports on a symposium entitled "man and his

future" held in london in 1963. the purpose of the conference was to

study and predict the effects of science on every aspect of human life.

dubos observed that the participants had no difficulty discussing the role

of science in terms of space exploration, energy, and the consumption of

raw materials. as a matter of fact, the participants seemed to believe that

there were few limitations to what science might do. however, dubos

noticed that no-one seemed to be able to deal adequately with the human

side of the coin, or the psychological, ethical, emotional, and cultural

factors which mediate the use of science. dubos felt this was an indication

that scientific knowledge was in danger of becoming alienated from human

experience, thus reducing the ability of technology to meet human needs.

dubos refers to this as the disjunction between technology and human

experience. the choice of the word "disjunction" is rather interesting.

one might visualize this phenomenon as similar to putting an electrical

plug incorrectly into an extension cord socket. this results in one prong

in one hole and the other sticking out of the socket. to lament over the

disjunction of science and technology is not a cry for a return to the good

old days in which life was supposedly was simpler and sounder, a thesis

which could easily be refuted. rather, dubos is asserting that there is a

need for a new philosophy of science, one which will unite scientific

technology with human experience (mokrzychi, 1983; munevar, 1981 ).

one cannot assume that automatically the good life will emerge from

scientific and technological inventions, and naively think that more of the

latter will create a better society.

the disjunction between scientific technology and human experience

is being demonstrated in some of the questions facing modern society. one

example of the double-edged nature of technology is the development of

Its because living thing are in life they wont survive in any habitat that aren't for them
Pupils constricting in the sun and sweating to cool your body temperature


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