Elements that has a valence of less than 4 electrons are mostly metals and form a positive ion after ionic bond. They have large atomic radius, low ionization energy, low electron affinity, and low electronegativity.
Looking into the periodic table, the family that has 4 less than 4 valence electron are Family 1A the alkali metals that has 1 valence electron, Family 2A The alkaline earth Metals that has 2 valence electron, 3A in which only the Boron is a metaloids and transition metals under 3B.
metal found in the left side of the periodic table ,it has less than 4 valence electrons
Metal elements have less than 4 valence electrons.