Vertebrates are fertilize and reproduce through . Most of vertebrates have separate sexes for male and female species. Sexual reproduction occurs when gametes unite by the process of . The fertilized gametes forms a new cell called . is classified into two types: the external and internal fertilization. External fertilization mostly happens with aquatic species while internal fertilization occurs in terrestrials species.
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The development of embryo takes place inside an egg laid by the mother. Hence, in oviparity, the egg hatches outside the mother’s body.
• all birds
• some of fish
• most of reptiles
The development of the embryo takes place inside an egg within the mother’s body. The egg stays inside the mother’s body until it hatches.
• shark (basking shark)
• other fish
• other snakes
The embryo development takes place inside the mother’s body. This strategy results to giving birth.
• Most of mammals
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Therefore, the four choices above are strategies of fertilization used by vertebrates except for .
Nulliparity is the state of never having been pregnant