The invention of the optical telescope revolutionised our knowledge of astronomy by making distant objects appear closer and therefore larger.
Radio astronomy was born when a telephone engineer Karl Jansky (1905-1950) was looking for sources of static noise affecting radiotelephone communications.
Observing in the infrared is limited to only a few wavelength ranges due to absorption by CO2 and water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere.
A rocket borne experiment launched in 1962, provided the first direct evidence that some celestial objects are strong X-ray emitters.
Gamma Ray Astronomy
During the cold war, the US military launched a series of satellites called Vela that were designed to ensure compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty.