How did New York attempt to address the problems that emerged from urbanization


Given the plethora of biases and to a great extent, inaccurate judgments and pretensions of the author, the text was clearly not written for local consumption, but for Western readers. Customs of the Tagalogs, just like any other colonial texts written during the Spanish colonial period, was intentionally made to provide an exoticize description of the Tagalog natives, clearly fed by politics and propaganda and operated with the Western-outsider's gaze, that would be appealing to them.


Repetitively compared local traditions with Western paradigm/parameters. The Tagalog idol, lic-ha, for example, was matched up with Romans’ statue of deity of a dead man who was brave in war and endowed with special faculties. These two objects are evidently different in nature and don’t fall under the same category. Datos were also described as the equivalent of the European “nobles,” hence undermining the indigenous political systems. Worse, the ritualistic and superstitious beliefs of the Tagalogs were mocked by de Placencia, by coming up with various categories of devil-ish beliefs. The mangagauay and mangagayoma, for instance, were both regarded as “witches” who performed deceitful healing procedures, a judgment made by an outsider who knew nothing about the complexity of indigenous psyche. What he failed to realize is that in traditional cultures, these so-called “evil” practices were an integral part of Filipino folk beliefs; and the early Tagalogs, in reality, never considered them as acts of the devil. Needless to say, the application of Western parameters to local traditions has often proven fractious especially in classifying and describing local and colonial situations.

Awareness of students about history.

No. but other fraternity hazing is a part of brotherhood because to recognize 1.test of loyalty
2.common bond between brother
3.defines masculinity
4.distinctiveness of the fraternity
5.self esteem
6.test your ability to withstand pressure
7.self-fulfillment follow the tradition


the laguna copperplate inscription (filipino: inskripsyon sa binatbat na tanso ng laguna, malay: prasasti keping tembaga laguna; often shortened into the acronym lci), a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 ce, is the earliest known calendar-dated document found in the philippines. the date of the inscription would make it contemporary to the balitung kingdom of central java, although it necessarily did not originate from that area.[1]

the plate was found in 1989 by a laborer near the mouth of the lumbang river in wawa barangay, lumban municipality, laguna province. the inscription, written in a mix of the old malay language using the old kawi script, was first deciphered by dutch anthropologist and hanunó'o script expert antoon postma in 1992.[1][2]

the lci documents the existence of several early philippine polities as early as ad 900, most notably the pasig river delta polity of tondo.[1] scholars believe that it also indicates trade, cultural, and possibly political ties between these polities and at least one contemporaneous asian civilization—the medang kingdom of the island of java.[1]

the inscription was written in kawi script—a writing system developed in java, and using a mixture of languages including sanskrit, old javanese, and old malay. this was a rare trace of javanese influence, which suggests the extent of interinsular exchanges of that


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